The Cacti: Reading Practice 3 (explanation)

By | March 22, 2015

The cacti (singular: cactus) evolved a whole suite of adaptations to survive living in the desert. How do they survive? While most plants open up their stomata – little pores in their skin that open and close to collect carbon dioxide – during the day, cacti and other nocturnal plants such as the agaves and aloes open their… Read More »

Hummingbirds: Reading Practice 4 (report)

By | March 21, 2015

Hummingbird is a common name for any of the more than 300 species of a family of small birds found in the Americas. The hummingbird family contains the smallest of all birds; many species are less than 8 cm (3 in) in overall length. The smallest species is the bee hummingbird of Cuba. Males are slightly smaller than… Read More »

Floods: Reading Practice 2 (explanation)

By | March 21, 2015

Floods are second only to fire as the most common of all natural disasters. They occur almost everywhere in the world, resulting in widespread damage and even death. Consequently, scientists have long tried to perfect their ability to predict floods. So far, the best that scientists can do is to recognize the potential for flooding in certain conditions.… Read More »

Silkworm Caterpillars: Reading Practice 1 (explanation)

By | March 20, 2015

Silkworms live for only two or three days after laying eggs. About 36,000 to 50,000 eggs are laid, and these are carefully stored at the silkworm farm until they are ready to hatch. The eggs hatch into caterpillars, which feed on mulberry leaves. Soon, the caterpillars are ready to spin their cocoons. Not all caterpillars can spin silk… Read More »


By | March 20, 2015

What is an explanation text? Exlanation text is a piece of writing that answers the questions ‘how’ or ‘why’. These questions usually have something to do with particular phenomenon. This text is focused on answering questions like how a rainbow forms, how a bicycle works, how seasons change, why the sky is blue, why leaves are green, etc.… Read More »

All Present & Past Tenses: Review Exercise

By | March 19, 2015

Instruction: Put the verb in the brackets in the simple present tense, the present continuous tense, the present perfect tense, the present perfect continuous tense, the simple past tense, the past continuous tense, the past perfect tense, or the past perfect continuous tense. In some situations, more than one tense is possible. 1. A: Where is Tuti? B:… Read More »